Symbols and distinctions
The University is a urban medium-sized European corporation that has been produced and reproduced by the free association of students and teachers to promote their interests in the transmission and methodical production, free of higher education, institutionalized activity on study subjects, programs , examinations and certificates of studies. All of them are party to and subject to internal jurisdiction defined by a Charter agreed together.
During the Middle Ages, the universities were under the protection of the two universal universities of Europe: the spiritual – the Holy See and the secular – the Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, both conferring immunity on university corporations and jurisdiction over the universities.
The privilege granted by Emperor Frederic Barbarossa in 1155 in Bologna, to universities, says:
“By this universal and forever valid law, we therefore declare that from now on, no one will ever have the boldness of defrauding any man in the school, nor should he dare to cause any damage (…). But if anybody would like to start a legal action against any schoolman for any reason, give the school people the opportunity to choose whether to come to trial before their lord or magistrate or the bishop of the city , to whom I have granted them the right to be heard. And if someone dares to shoot them before another judge, then his judgment, even if it is very justified, will be annulled because of such a dare. For while doing good things deserves our praise and protection, we believe that all those through whose science the world is enlightened, and the life of the subjects is directed to obedience to God and us, His servants, to protect them with love against any injustice. “(Imperial Constitutions, Trad. Tanaşoca).
Through this privilege, academics become a state, a social class defined with distinct rights and duties, established by law. Along with the valorisation of university professorship and the privilege of universities, academics acquire honor and prestige, collectively assigned to all members. From the moment information becomes power, universities and university elite are directly or mediated in power.
In Romania, through the Constitution, universities are autonomous, they are based on their own Charter under the authority of the Senate and the power entrusted by the Senate to the Rector.
This status of the institution and the university is signaled by traditional institutionalized signs that symbolically communicate social meanings and values. These are: